Footnotes
No.
Footnote
1.
November, 1980, Jerusalem, Israel. See also Sir Norman Anderson, ed., The World's Religions, 4th ed. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975), pp. 73, 77
2.
Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, unabridged, p.2198.
3.
James Strong, Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible (Nashville: Abingdon, 1890).
4.
William Dyrness, Themes in Old Testament Theology (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1979), pp. 4-42.
5.
Henry Flanders, Jr. and Bruce Cresson, Introduction to the Bible (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1973), p. 61.
6.
Definitions and spellings are from Strong's Exhaustive Concordance.
7.
Flanders and Cresson, p.79.
8.
See, Francis Derk, The Names of Christ, 2nd ed. (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1969) pp. 152-153; Strong, Exhaustive Concordance.
9.
Marvin Vincent, Word Studies in the New Testament (1887; rpt. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975), I, 16; W.E. Vine, An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (Old Tappan, N.J.: Fleming H. Revell, 1940), p. 274.
10.
John Miller, Is God a Trinity? (1922; rpt. HazeIwood, Mo.: Word Aflame Press, 1975), p.85.
11.
Flanders and Cresson, p. 511.
12.
Otto Heick, A History of Christian Thought (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1965), I, 31-32, 59-63.
13.
November, 1980, Jerusalem, Israel.
14.
Heick, I, 179-180.
15.
Flanders and Cresson, p. 343.
16.
Miller, pp. 96-97.
17.
James Buswell, Jr., A Systematic Theology of the Christian Religion (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1980), I, 23.
18.
Heick, I, 53. See also, "Baptism (Early Christian)," Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, II, 384, 389.
19.
Heick, I, 87.
20.
We have just explained I John 5:7 in a way that is consistent with the rest of Scripture. However, there is practically unanimous agreement among Bible scholars that this verse is really not part of the Bible at all! All major translations since the King James Version have omitted it, including the Revised Standard Version, The Amplified Bible, and the New International Version. So does the generally accepted Greek text (Nestle's text). The NIV renders I John 5:7-8 as, "For there are three that testify: the Spirit, the water and the blood; and these three are in agreement."

The KJV included verse 7 only because the 1522 edition of the Greek text compiled by Erasmus included it. Originally Erasmus had excluded this passage from his editions of 1516 and 1519 because it was not in any of 5000 Greek manuscripts but only in late manuscripts of the Vulgate - the Latin version then used by the Roman Catholic Church. When the Catholic church put pressure on Erasmus to include this verse, he promised to do so if they could find even one Greek manuscript that had it. They finally produced one, so Erasmus reluctantly added the verse in, even though the manuscript so produced dated from 1520. (See Norman Geisler and William Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible, Chicago: Moody Press, 1968, p. 370.) From this evidence, it seems plausible that some overzealous copyist saw "there are three that testify" and decided to insert a little teaching of his own. Certainly, the passage in question is completely unrelated to the rest of John's discussion here and interrupts the flow of his logical argument.

Although all the evidence indicates this passage was not originally a part of I John, God had His hand of protection and preservation on His Word. Despite the efforts of man, God did not allow the passage to contradict His Word. Whether a person believes that I John 5:7 was origin ally part of the Bible or that it was a later interpolation, it does not teach three persons of God but rather reaffirms the Bible's teaching of one indivisible God with various manifestations.

21.
Flanders and Cresson, p.48, n. 8.
22.
Conversation with Orthodox Rabbi David Rubin, Director of the Institute of Torah Studies, Jerusalem, Israel, November, 1980.
23.
"Trinity, Holy (In the Bible)," The New Catholic Encyclopedia, XIV, 306.
24.
Bernard Ramm, Protestant Biblical Interpretation, 3rd ed. (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1965), p. 150.
25.
For verification of the Greek in these passages, see Alfred Marshall, The Interlinear Greek-English New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1958). For a thorough discussion by a Greek scholar on the usage of kai, see Robert Brent Graves, The God of Two Testaments (n.p., 1977).
26.
Donald Bloesch, Essentials of Evangelical Theology (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1978), I, 139.
27.
Ibid, p. 138.
28.
Spence and Joseph Exell, eds., The Pulpit Commentary (rpt. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977), XXII (Revelation), 162.
29.
Ibid, XXII (Revelation), 165.
30.
Heick, I, 46-48.
31.
Kenneth Latourette, A History of Christianity (New York: Harper and Row, 1953), p. 143.
32.
Baptism (Early Christian), Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1951), p. 385.
33.
Klotsche, E.H., The History of Christian Doctrine (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1979), p. 18.
34.
"Monarchianism," Encyclopedia Britannica, XV, 686.
35.
Heick, I, 150.
36.
"Sabellius," Encyclopedia Britannica, XIX, 791.
37.
Loc. cit.
38.
Tertullian, Against Praxeas, 3, rpt. in Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, eds., The Ante- Nicene Fathers (rpt. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977), III, 598-599.
39.
Thomas Weisser, After the Way Called Heresy (n.p., 1981), p. 115.
40.
Heick, I, 268.
41.
"Servetus, Michael," Encyclopedia Britannica, XX, 371-372.
42.
"Unitarianism," Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, XII, 520.
43.
Walter Nigg, The Heretics (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962), pp. 324-328.
44.
Emmanuel Swedenborg, The Mystery of God? (1771; rpt. Portland, Or.: Apostolic Book Publishers, n.d.), p. 29. See Emmanuel Swedenborg, The True Christian Religion (New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1907), I, 42.
45.
David Campbell, All the Fulness (Hazelwood, Mo.: Word Aflame Press, 1975), pp. 167-173.
46.
Buswell, I, 123.
47.
Fred Foster, Their Story: 20th Century Pentecostals (Hazelwood, Mo.: Word Aflame Press, 1981), pp. 120-122, citing Parham, A Voice Crying in the Wilderness, pp. 23-24.
48.
"Trinity, Holy," The New Catholic Encyclopedia, XIV, 295-305.
49.
Adolph Harnack, History of Dogma (London: Williams & Norgate, 1897), III, 51-54.
50.
"Monarchianism," The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, VII, 454-458.
51.
Wolfson, The Philosophy of the Church Fathers (Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970), I, 581-584.
52.
Dorner, Doctrine of the Person of Christ (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1870), II, 273.
53.
Ibid, II, 20.
54.
Wolfson, I, 591.
55.
"Monarchianism," Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, VIII, 780.
56.
Wolfson, I, 583-584.
57.
Dorner, II, 164.
58.
Harnack, III, 68.
59.
Jules Lebreton and Jacques Zeiller, Heresy and Orthodoxy, Vol. IV of A History of the Early Church (New York: Collier, 1962), p. 155.
60.
Harnack, III, 63.
61.
"Trinity, Holy," p. 295.
62.
Van Harvey, A Handbook of Theological Terms (New York: MacMillan, 1964), p. 244.
63.
Ibid; William Stevens, Doctrines of the Christian Religion (Nashville: Broadman, 1967), p. 119.
64.
Harvey, p. 245.
65.
Heick, I, 160; "Trinity," pp. 459-460.
66.
"Trinity," p. 460.
67.
Bloesch, I, 35.
68.
Heick, I, 160; Stevens, p. 119; "Trinity, Holy," p. 295.
69.
Harvey, p. 246. See also, "Trinity," p. 460.
70.
Stevens, p. 119.
71.
Webster's, p. 1686.
72.
Heick, I, 161.
73.
Harvey, p. 182.
74.
Finis Dake, Dake's Annotated Reference Bible (Lawrenceville, Ga.: Dake's Bible Sales, 1963), NT, 280. Emphasis in original.
75.
Jimmy Swaggart, "The Error of the 'Jesus Only' Doctrine," The Evangelist, April, 1981, p. 6. Emphasis in original.
76.
Carl Brumback, God in Three Persons (Cleveland, Tenn.: Pathway Press, 1959), pp. 60-63.
77.
Heick, I, 127.
78.
Heick, I, 117-118.
79.
"Trinity, Holy," pp. 295-305.
80.
Emil Brunner, The Christian Doctrine of God (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1949), pp. 236-239.
81.
"Trinity, Holy," pp. 295-305.
82.
Alexander Hislop, The Two Babylons, 2nd ed. (Neptune, N.J.: Loizeaux Bras., 1959), pp. 16-19.
83.
Will and Ariel Durant, The Story of Civilization (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1935), I, 201.
84.
"Trinity," p. 458.
85.
John Noss, Man's Religions, 5th ed. (New York: MacMillan, 1969), p. 202.
86.
Ibid, p. 163.
87.
Hislop, p. 18.
88.
Noss, p. 268.
89.
"Trinity," p. 458.
90.
Heick, I, 107-110.
91.
"Trinity, Holy," pp. 295-305.
92.
Heick, I, 123-129.
93.
Harvey, pp. 181-182.
94.
Noss, p. 453.
95.
Harvey, p. 123.
96.
Tertullian, Against Praxeas, 3.
97.
Heick, I, 112-123.
98.
Durant, 111(1944), 653-664.
99.
Nigg, p. 102.
100.
Ibid, pp. 126-127.
101.
Heick, I, 156.
102.
Reinhold Seeburg, Textbook of the History of Doctrines, trans. Charles Hay (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1954), I, 216-217.
103.
Klotsche, p. 67.
104.
Roland Bainton, Early Christianity (Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1960), pp. 68-70.
105.
Heick, I, 157.
106.
Ibid, I, 163.
107.
See, Anne Fremantle, ed., A Treasury of Early Christianity (New York: Mentor Books, 1953); Seeburg, I, 240-243.
108.
Heick, I, 88. See, Tim Dowley, et al., eds., Eerdman's Handbook to the History of the Church (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977), p. 145.
109.
Brumback, p.79
110.
Ramm, p. 171.

The Oneness of God